Oral Implantology is a rapidly evolving dental discipline. The purpose of oral implantology is to return patients to oral health by restoring normal contour, function, comfort, esthetics, speech and health. Dental implants have become a treatment option for variety of cases of missing teeth. The prerequisite for successful dental implant treatment has been attributed to their firm bone anchorage, referred to as osseointegration or functional ankylosis. Success of direct skeletal attachment with metal substrates remained limited until Per-Ingvar Branemark discovered the integration potential between titanium and bone. Branemark and his coworkers coined the term “osseointegration” to describe the ability of titanium to form a mechanical and functional interconnection with osseous tissue without the formation of interposed connective tissue. Osseointegration is a biomechanical phenomenon in which clinically asymptomatic rigid fixation of the implant is achieved and maintained in bone during functional loading. Thus the science of osseointegration has broadened the scope of treatment options for many patients across the globe. Success in implant dentistry relies on the initial osseointegration and long-term stability. This book gives a comprehensive outlook of osseointegration in physiological function, its biomechanism and future considerations.