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Tooth avulsion is the entire displacement of a tooth from its socket as a result of trauma (assault, fall, sports injury or traffic accident) and is characterised by compromised neurovascular supply, pulp necrosis, and loss of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Replantation where the tooth is placed into its socket, is the treatment of choice for avulsed teeth. For successful tooth replantation it’s is important to preserve cell activity within the remaining periodontal ligament of the replanted teeth. The time span of the extra-alveolar period of a tooth, medium in which it is stored, and also the preservation of the root determines the viability of periodontal ligament cells. The oldest and most effective type of periodontal regeneration attempted is chemical modification of root surface. Various agents are used for chemical root surface conditioning. These include citric acid, tetracycline HCL, EDTA, phosphoric acid, and various growth factors. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) is a growth factor with a large family of 22 members and it is found in ectomesenchyme during the embryonal period. It was proved to rejuvenate periodontal tissue, cemental tissue with Sharpey’s fibres, and new functionally aligned periodontal ligament fibres in animal models. However, the degree to which it regenerates periodontal tissue after tooth replantation remains questionable. Pre-clinical studies in animals provide proof-of-principle, laying the planning for future clinical studies. Therefore, this book seeks to systematically review the literature regarding the efficacy of basic fibroblast growth factor on periodontal regeneration within the context of replantation.

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